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So far we have used the integral mainly to to compute areas of plane regions.
It turns out that the definite integral can also be used to calculate
the volumes of certain types of three-dimensional solids. The class of
solids we will consider in this lab are called *Solids of
Revolution* because they can be obtained by revolving a plane region
about an axis.

As a simple example, consider the graph of the function *f*(*x*) = *x ^{2}*+1
for , which appears in Figure 1.

If we take the region between the graph and the x-axis and revolve it about the x-axis, we obtain the solid pictured in Figure 2.

To help you in plotting surfaces of revolution, A
Maple procedure called `revolve` has been written. The
command used to produce the graphs in Figures 1 and
2 is shown below. The `revolve` procedure, as well
as the `RevInt`, `LeftInt`, and
`LeftDisk` procedures described below are all part of the `
CalcP` package, which must be loaded first. The last line in the
example below shows the
optional argument for revolving the graph of *f*(*x*) about the line
*y*=-2 instead of the default *y*=0.

> with(CalcP):

> f := x -> x^2+1;

> plot(f(x),x=-2..2);

> revolve(f(x),x=-2..2);

> revolve(f(x),x=-2..2,y=-2)

The `revolve` command has other options that you should read about
in the help screen. For example, you can speed the command up by only
plotting the surface generated by revolving the curve with the `
nocap` argument, and you can also plot a solid of revolution formed
by revolving the area between two functions. Try the following
examples. (Note: The last example shows how to use `revolve` with
a function defined piecewise.)

> revolve(f(x),0.5,x=-2..2,y=-1);

> revolve(cos(x),x=0..4*Pi,y=-2,nocap);

> revolve(5,x^2+1,x=-2..2);

> g := x -> if x < 0 then -x +1/2 else x^2-x+1/2 fi ;

g := proc(x) options operator,arrow; if x < 0 then -x+1/2 else x^2-x+1/2 fi end

> revolve('g(x)',x=-1..2);

It turns out that the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the
region in Figure 1 between the graph and the *x*-axis
about the *x*-axis can
be determined from the integral

Where does this formula come from? To help you understand it, Two more
Maple procedures, `RevInt` and `LeftDisk`, have been written.
The procedure `RevInt` sets up the integral for the volume of a
solid of revolution, as shown below. The Maple commands `evalf`
and `value` can
be used to obtain a numerical or analytical value.

> RevInt(f(x),x=-2..2);

> value(RevInt(f(x),x=-2..2));

> evalf(RevInt(f(x),x=-2..2));

The integral formula given above for the volume of a solid of
revolution comes, as usual, from a limit process. Recall the
rectangular approximations we used for plane regions. If you think of
taking one of the rectangles and revolving it about the x-axis, you
get a disk whose radius is the height *h* of the rectangle and
thickness is , the width of the rectangle. The volume of
this disk is . If you revolve all of the rectangles in
the rectangular approximation about the x-axis, you get a solid made
up of disks that approximates the volume of the solid of revolution
obtained by revolving the plane region about the x-axis.

To help you visualize this approximation of the volume by disks, the
`LeftDisk` procedure has been written. The syntax for this procedure is
similar to that for `revolve`, except that the number of
subintervals must be specified. The examples below produce
approximations with five and ten disks. The latter approximation is
shown in Figure 3.

> LeftDisk(f(x),x=-2..2,5);

> LeftDisk(f(x),x=-2..2,10);

> LeftInt(f(x),x=-2..2,5);

> LeftInt(f(x),x=-2..2,10);

The two `LeftInt` commands above add up the volumes in the disk
approximations of the solid of revolution.

> f:= x-> sqrt(x) +1;

> vol:= int(Pi*f(x)^2, x=0..9);

> evalf(vol);

> S:= int(2*Pi*f(x)*sqrt(1+D(f)(x)^2), x= 0..9);

> evalf(S);

to find the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating

- 1.
- For each function below,
- (a)
- Plot its surface of revolution.
- (b)
- Find the volume of the solid of revolution about the x-axis.
- (c)
- Find the surface area of the surface of revolution about the x-axis.

- 2.
- Now generalize the results from Exercise 1 by taking advantage of Maple's symbolic capabilities and find the
**volume**and**surface area**for:- (a)
- about the x-axis
- (b)
- about the x-axis
- (c)
- about the x-axis.

(Your answers in each case may have parameters*a*and/or*h*in them.)

- 3.
- Design a funky hat by revolving a suitable function about the x-axis. In your report, give the function, a three dimensional plot of your hat, and determine the amount of material needed to make your hat. You will be graded on the utility and originality of your design.
**Note:**The hat will be lying on its side.

12/11/1997