Subsections

# Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

## Getting Started

To assist you, there is a worksheet associated with this lab that contains examples and even solutions to some of the exercises. You can copy that worksheet to your home directory with the following command, which must be run in a terminal window for example, not in Maple.

cp /math/calclab/MA1024/Coords_start_D10.mws ~/My_Documents


Another way to access the getting started worksheet is to go to your computer's Start menu and choose run. In the run field type:

\\toaster\calclab

when you hit enter, you can then choose MA1024 and then choose the worksheet
Coords_start_D10.mws

Remember to immediately save it in your own toaster directory. Once you've copied and saved the worksheet, read through the background on the internet and the background of the worksheet before starting the exercises.

## Background

Defining surfaces with rectangular coordinates often times becomes more complicated than necessary. A change in coordinates can simplify things. Cylindrical coordinates can simplify plotting a region in space that is symmetric with respect to the -axis such as paraboloids and cylinders. The paraboloid would become and the cylinder would become . Spherical coordinates would simplify the equation of a sphere, such as , to . The conversion tables below show how to make the change of coordinates.

To change to cylindrical coordinates from rectangular coordinates use the conversion:

Where is the radius in the x-y plane and is the angle in the x-y plane.

To change to spherical coordinates from rectangular coordinates use the conversion:

Where is the angle in the x-y plane; is the radius from the origin in any direction; and is the angle in the x-z plane.

Using a triple integral to find the volume of a solid translates in the following manner:

## Exercises

1. Given the rectangular equation for a circular cone:

A)
Graph the equation using the domain values of , and the range values .
B)
Find the equation of the cone in cylindrical coordinates and then graph the equation. Write the equation in text in its simplest form.
C)
Find the equation of the cone in spherical coordinates and graph it. Write the equation of the equation in text in its simplest form.
D)
Use rectangular coordinates and a triple integral to find the volume of this circular cone with height . Now repeat this using cylindrical coordinates. Which method is easier?

2. Now suppose an ice cream cone is bounded below by the same equation of the cone given in exercise 1 and bounded above by the sphere . Find the volume of the ice cream cone using a triple integral in cylindrical coordinates and again using spherical coordinates. Include a plot of the ice cream cone.